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C++ programming language questions and answers -Part-I
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Posted by: Hari Mohan, on 7/28/2009, in category "Questions & Answers"
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Abstract: C++ Frequently Asked Questions

What is abstraction?

Abstraction is of the process of hiding unwanted details from the user.

What is inheritance?
Inheritance allows one class to reuse the state and behavior of another class. The derived class inherits the properties and method implementations of the base class and extends it by overriding methods and adding additional properties and methods.

What is encapsulation?
Encapsulation isolates the internal complexity of an object's operation from the rest of the application.Containing and hiding information about an object, such as internal data structures and code.

What is polymorphism? Explain with an example?

"Poly" means "many" and "morph" means "form". Polymorphism is the ability of an object to become many different forms of object.

What do you mean by inheritance?

Inheritance is the process of creating new classes, called derived classes, from existing classes or base classes. The derived class inherits all the capabilities of the base class. 

What is multiple inheritance(virtual inheritance)? What are its advantages and disadvantages?

Multiple Inheritance is the process whereby a child can be derived from more than one parent class. The advantage of multiple inheritance is that it allows a class to inherit the functionality of more than one base class thus allowing for modeling of complex relationships. The disadvantage of multiple inheritance is that it can lead to a lot of ambiguity when two base classes implement a method with the same name.

What is function overloading and operator overloading?

Function overloading: C++ enables several functions of the same name to be defined, as long as these functions have different sets of parameters (at least as far as their types are concerned). This capability is called function overloading. When an overloaded function is called, the C++ compiler selects the proper function by examining the number, types and order of the arguments in the call. Function overloading is commonly used to create several functions of the same name that perform similar tasks but on different data types.
Operator overloading allows existing C++ operators to be redefined so that they work on objects of user-defined classes. Overloaded operators are syntactic sugar for equivalent function calls. They form a pleasant facade that doesn't add anything fundamental to the language (but they can improve understandability and reduce maintenance costs).

Define namespace.

It is a feature in C++ to minimize name collisions in the global name space. This namespace keyword assigns a distinct name to a library that allows other libraries to use the same identifier names without creating any name collisions. Furthermore, the compiler uses the namespace signature for differentiating the definitions.

What is a class?

Class is a user-defined data type in C++. It can be created to solve a particular kind of problem. After creation the user need not know the specifics of the working of a class.

What is constructor or ctor?
Constructor creates an object and initializes it. It also creates vtable for virtual functions. It is different from other methods in a class.

What is default constructor?
Constructor with no arguments or all the arguments has default values.

What is destructor?
Destructor usually deletes any extra resources allocated by the object.

What is friend function?

As the name suggests, the function acts as a friend to a class. As a friend of a class, it can access its private and protected members. A friend function is not a member of the class. But it must be listed in the class definition.

What is pure virtual function?

A class is made abstract by declaring one or more of its virtual functions to be pure. A pure virtual function is one with an initializer of = 0 in its declaration

What is RTTI?

Runtime type identification (RTTI) lets you find the dynamic type of an object when you have only a pointer or a reference to the base type. RTTI is the official way in standard C++ to discover the type of an object and to convert the type of a pointer or reference (that is, dynamic typing). The need came from practical experience with C++. RTTI replaces many homegrown versions with a solid, consistent approach

What is virtual class and friend class?

Friend classes are used when two or more classes are designed to work together and need access to each other's implementation in ways that the rest of the world shouldn't be allowed to have. In other words, they help keep private things private. For instance, it may be desirable for class DatabaseCursor to have more privilege to the internals of class Database than main() has.

What are the differences between a C++ struct and C++ class?

The C++ struct has all the features of the class. The only differences are that a struct defaults to public member access and public base class inheritance, and a class defaults to the private access specifier and private base class inheritance. The default member and base class access specifiers are different.

What is the difference between a pointer and a reference?

A reference must always refer to some object and, therefore, must always be initialized; pointers do not have such restrictions. A pointer can be reassigned to point to different objects while a reference always refers to an object with which it was initialized.

What is the difference between const char *myPointer and char *const myPointer?

Const char *myPointer is a non constant pointer to constant data; while char *const myPointer is a constant pointer to non constant data

What is inline function??

The __inline keyword tells the compiler to substitute the code within the function definition for every instance of a function call. However, substitution occurs only at the compiler's discretion. For example, the compiler does not inline a function if its address is taken or if it is too large to inline.

What is a Null object?

It is an object of some class whose purpose is to indicate that a real object of that class does not exist. One common use for a null object is a return value from a member function that is supposed to return an object with some specified properties but cannot find such an object.

Differentiate between a template class and class template.

Template class: A generic definition or a parameterized class not instantiated until the client provides the needed information. It’s jargon for plain templates. Class template: A class template specifies how individual classes can be constructed much like the way a class specifies how individual objects can be constructed. It’s jargon for plain classes.

What do you mean by pure virtual functions?A pure virtual member function is a member function that the base class forces derived classes to provide. Normally these member functions have no implementation. Pure virtual functions are equated to zero.

class Shape { public: virtual void draw() = 0; };


What is a template?

Templates allow creating generic functions that admit any data type as parameters and return value without having to overload the function with all the possible data types. Until certain point they fulfill the functionality of a macro

 


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